Gorbachev therefore transformed Soviet foreign policy. Global Look Press. In 1990 Gorbachev received the Nobel Peace Prize for his “leading role in the peace process” in Europe. The Russian government under Yeltsin assumed many of the responsibilities of the former Soviet Union. On This Day: Gorbachev removed in coup On Aug. 19, 1991, a coup orchestrated by hard-line Communists removed Mikhail Gorbachev as president of the Soviet Union. To this end, he called for rapid technological modernization and increased worker productivity, and he tried to make the cumbersome Soviet bureaucracy more efficient and responsive. Shortly thereafter Gorbachev restructured the Soviet government to include a bicameral parliament. By the summer of 1990 he had agreed to the reunification of East with West Germany and even assented to the prospect of that reunified nation’s becoming a member of the Soviet Union’s longtime enemy, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Born in the agricultural region of Stavropol, Gorbachev studied law at Moscow State Univ., where in 1953 he married a philosophy student, Raisa Maksimovna Titorenko (1932?–99). A new parliament, the Congress of People’s Deputies, was convened in the spring of 1989, with Gorbachev presiding. Gorbachev also moved quickly to shift fundamental political powers to the Soviet Union’s constituent republics. The New Russians. The CIS began operations in early 1992. However, a Siberian deputy stepped down in his favour. In 1988 Gorbachev became Soviet president and chief of state. Mansky has known Gorbachev for more than 20 years. One of the Russian questions was whether the voters were in favour of a directly elected president. In October 1988 General Secretary Gorbachev was elected to the chairmanship of the presidium of the national legislature (the Supreme Soviet). At the same time, the Congress, under his leadership, abolished the Communist Party’s constitutionally guaranteed monopoly of political power in the Soviet Union, thus paving the way for the legalization of other political parties. Gorbachev won a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for Children in 2004, along with former U.S. President Bill Clinton. Dissatisfaction with the Yeltsin administration prompted Gorbachev to run for president of Russia in 1996. Russians began to view the Soviet system as one that worked for its own political and economic interests at Russia’s expense. Perestroika was an attempt to modernise and ‘rebuild’ the Soviet state. 1983 Textile and Light Industry Workers' Union. This had led to cuts in expenditures in education, social services, and medical care, which hurt the regime’s domestic legitimacy. Gorbachev, however, never succeeded in making the jump from the command economy to even a mixed economy. He did not regard the structure of the Soviet economic system itself to be a cause of the country’s growing economic problems. Gorbachev worked with U.S. President Ronald Reagan to lessen the political and military tension between the United States and the Soviet Union. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? New York, 1993. 1984 Human Rights in the Soviet Union. An ill-conceived, ill-planned, and poorly executed coup attempt occurred August 19–21, 1991, bringing an end to the Communist Party and accelerating the movement to disband the Soviet Union. In May 1989 Gorbachev was elected chairman of this Supreme Soviet and thereby retained the national presidency. He graduated with a degree in law in 1955 and went on to hold a number of posts in the Komsomol and regular party organizations in Stavropol, rising to become first secretary of the regional party committee in 1970. (Scholarly.) This meant that all the republics, including first and foremost Russia, could have a similar type of presidency. Yeltsin came into conflict with the more conservative members of the Politburo and was eventually removed from the Moscow post in late 1987. Gorbachev understood that the defense burden, perhaps equivalent to 25 percent of the gross national product, was crippling the country. His team was more heavily Russian than that of his predecessors. Chernenko died on March 10, 1985, and the following day the Politburo elected Gorbachev general secretary of the CPSU. Nobody knows that burden like Mikhail Gorbachev, the final leader of the Soviet Union. The new leaders, headed by former vice-president Gennady Yanayev have declared a state of emergency. Yury V. Andropov and then Konstantin Chernenko led the country from 1982 until 1985, but their administrations failed to address critical problems. Gorbachev was named a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1971, and he was appointed a party secretary of agriculture in 1978. Entering into an unavoidable alliance with Yeltsin, Gorbachev quit the Communist Party, disbanded its Central Committee, and supported measures to strip the party of its control over the KGB and the armed forces. Mikhail Gorbachev (right) meeting with Ronald Reagan at the White House, Washington, D.C., 1987. In response, Gorbachev used military force to suppress bloody interethnic strife in several of the Central Asian republics in 1989–90, while constitutional mechanisms were devised that could provide for the lawful secession of a republic from the U.S.S.R. With the CPSU waning in power and steadily losing prestige in the face of the mounting impetus for democratic political procedures, Gorbachev in 1990 further accelerated the transfer of power from the party to elected governmental institutions. The reign of Peter I (the Great; 1689–1725), The reign of Catherine II (the Great; 1762–96), Government administration under Catherine, Education and social change in the 18th century, The Civil War and War Communism (1918–21), The Gorbachev era: perestroika and glasnost, Ethnic relations and Russia’s “near-abroad”, Consolidation of power, Syria, and campaign against the West. He traveled abroad extensively and was brilliantly successful in convincing foreigners that the U.S.S.R. was no longer an international threat. On March 11, 1985, Gorbachev became the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. From a strictly legal point of view, this should have been done by court order, not by presidential decree. He used his newfound legitimacy to promote Russian sovereignty, to advocate and adopt radical economic reform, to demand Gorbachev’s resignation, and to negotiate treaties with the Baltic republics, in which he acknowledged their right to independence. Good pages, light soiling on top edge. His changes in foreign policy led to the democratization of eastern Europe and the end of the Cold War. But the Communist hard-liners who had replaced reformers in the government proved undependable allies, and Gorbachev and his family were briefly held under house arrest from August 19 to 21, 1991, during a short-lived coup by the hard-liners. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. When Gorbachev became head of the Communist Party in 1985, he launched perestroika (“restructuring”). Remnick, David. He did not, however, develop the power to implement these decisions. In this important book, Judy Shelton, one of America's leading experts on the Soviet economy, demonstrates that rampant inflation and a huge budget deficit, theoretically impossible under Marxism, have ravaged the Soviet economy and are forcing Mikhail Gorbachev into a … Non-Russian representation at the top of the party and the government had declined over time. (Perceptive journalistic account.) The Congress elected a new Supreme Soviet, and Gorbachev, who had opted for an executive presidency modeled on the U.S. and French systems, became the Soviet president, with broad powers. There were increasing complaints that the “Soviets” had destroyed the Russian environment and had impoverished Russia in order to maintain their empire and subsidize the poorer republics. He was elected general secretary in 1985. He became the first president of … In part because he ended the Soviet Union’s postwar domination of eastern Europe, Gorbachev was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1990. Gorbachev was the son of Russian peasants in Stavropol territory (kray) in southwestern Russia. Gorbachev helped take down the long-standing Iron Curtain separating Eastern communist states and Western noncommunist states. This responsibility was to pass to the local soviets. In 1989 the newly elected Congress of People’s Deputies elected from its ranks a new U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet that, in contrast to its predecessor of that name, was a real standing parliament with substantial legislative powers. Mikhail Gorbachev (left), general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, with Erich Honecker, first secretary of East Germany's Socialist Unity Party of Germany, 1986. Russia systematically laid claim to most Soviet property on its territory. In the later Gorbachev years, the opinion that the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution and establishment of the U.S.S.R. were mistakes that had prevented Russia from continuing along the historical path traveled by the countries of western Europe and had made Russia more economically backward vis-à-vis the West gained greater acceptance. Reagan insisted the SDI initiative should not be considered a space weapon, but merely a defensive technology. Under perestroika, some limited free-market mechanisms also began to be introduced into the Soviet economy, but even these modest economic reforms encountered serious resistance from party and government bureaucrats who were unwilling to relinquish their control over the nation’s economic life. The new freedoms arising from Gorbachev’s democratization and decentralization of his nation’s political system led to civil unrest in several of the constituent republics (e.g., Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Uzbekistan) and to outright attempts to achieve independence in others (e.g., Lithuania). He returned to public life as an elected deputy from Moscow to the Congress of People’s Deputies in 1989. In July 1987, the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union passed the Law on State Enterprise. Smith, Hedrick. “Dallas” was a hit show on CBS that started in the late 1970s, and was one of the most successful television series ever made. In 1989 the parliament elected from its ranks a new Supreme Soviet and made Gorbachev its chairman. Since his involuntary retirement, Gorbachev has raised money for … The most significant anti-coup role was played by Yeltsin, who brilliantly grasped the opportunity to promote himself and Russia. Agreeing with Cohen's assessment of the conservative character of the Soviet population is Benn, David Wedgewood, “ Gorbachev's Progress II: Confronting the Conservatives, ” The World Today 44 (June 1988): 94 – 95 Google Scholar. In March 1991, when Gorbachev launched an all-union referendum about the future Soviet federation, Russia and several other republics added some supplementary questions. TV show Dallas was the main reason behind the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union, it has been claimed. In the face of a collapsing economy, rising public frustration, and the continued shift of power to the constituent republics, Gorbachev wavered in direction, allying himself with party conservatives and the security organs in late 1990. Former Soviet Union leader Michael Gorbachev has said he hopes President-Elect Joe Biden's victory in last week's U.S. election will lead to better Washington, D.C.-Moscow ties, though has … In 1990 Gorbachev ran without opposition for president of the Soviet Union. In December 1987 he signed an agreement with U.S. President Ronald Reagan for their two countries to destroy all existing stocks of intermediate-range nuclear-tipped missiles. Strongly believing that the Soviet Union needed massive liberalization in order to revitalize both the Soviet economy and society, Gorbachev immediately began implementing reforms. Gorbachev, Mikhail Sergeyevich mēkhəyēl´ sĭrgā´yəvich gərbəchof´ [ key], 1931–, Soviet political leader. In 1985 Gorbachev brought Boris Yeltsin to Moscow to run that city’s party machine. His policies were simply not put into practice. He became a constitutional dictator—but only on paper. Gorbachev sought a compromise between these two diametrically opposed alternatives in vain, and so the centrally planned economy continued to crumble with no private enterprise to replace it. When Brezhnev died in 1982, most elite groups understood that the Soviet economy was in trouble. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Gorbachev was also the first general secretary of the Communist Party not to have served in the armed forces during World War II. Yeltsin’s politics reflected the rise of Russian nationalism. Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and U.S. President Ronald Reagan at the Geneva Summit 1985. It was replaced by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), a free association of sovereign states founded by the elected leaders of Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus (Belorussia). Gorbachev was the single most important initiator of a series of events in late 1989 and 1990 that transformed the political fabric of Europe and marked the beginning of the end of the Cold War. His primary domestic goal was to resuscitate the stagnant Soviet economy after its years of drift and low growth during Leonid Brezhnev’s tenure in power (1964–82). In so doing, Gorbachev helped end the Cold War. As democratically elected, noncommunist governments came to power in East Germany, Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia in late 1989–90, Gorbachev agreed to the phased withdrawal of Soviet troops from those countries. His goal was quite plain: to bring the Soviet Union up to par economically with the West. This effectively undermined all attempts by Gorbachev to establish a Union of Sovereign Socialist Republics. Mikhail Gorbachev resigned the presidency of the Soviet Union on December 25, 1991. Accordingly, under changes made to the constitution in December 1988, a new bicameral parliament called the U.S.S.R. Congress of People’s Deputies was created, with some of its members directly elected by the people in contested (i.e., multicandidate) elections. When he took office, Yegor Ligachev was made head of the party’s Central Committee Secretariat, one of the two main centres of power (with the Politburo) in the Soviet Union. At the age of 54, he became the youngest man to head the government of the Soviet Union since Joseph Stalin had come to power in the 1920s. As the U.S.S.R.’s economic problems became more serious (e.g., rationing was introduced for some basic food products for the first time since Stalin) and calls for faster political reforms and decentralization began to increase, the nationality problem became acute for Gorbachev. The Politburo was dominated by old men, and they were overwhelmingly Russian. Yeltsin for the first time had a national platform. Mikhail Gorbachev (centre) in East Berlin, 1986. Pris de court, il donne immédiatement l’ordre de «ne pas se mêler de ce qui se passe en RDA, même après l’ouverture du Mur». In 1988–89 he oversaw the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan after their nine-year occupation of that country. General secretary of the CPSU: perestroika to the fall of the Soviet Union, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Mikhail-Gorbachev, Academy of Achievement - Biography of Mikhail S. Gorbachev, Spartacus Educational - Biography of Mikhail Gorbachev, Age of the Sage - Transmitting the Wisdoms of the Ages - Biography of Mikhail Gorbachev, The Cold War Museum - Biography of Mikhail Gorbachev, RT Russiapedia - Biography of Mikhail Gorbachev, Mikhail Gorbachev - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Mikhail Gorbachev - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Under Gorbachev’s policy of perestroika (“restructuring”), the first modest attempts to democratize the Soviet political system were undertaken; multicandidate contests and the secret ballot were introduced in some elections to party and government posts. Learn about Mikhail Gorbachev's efforts to reform the Soviet Union. He proved less willing to release the Soviet economy from the grip of centralized state direction, however. Mikhail Gorbachev delivering a speech at the 11th congress of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany in East Berlin, 1986. Eurythmics co-founder Dave Stewart said that former Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev told him that the 1980s soap opera 'had more effect' in … Even in his dotage, stooped and tissue-skinned and walker-dependent, the former (and final) Soviet Union president Mikhail Gorbachev is an imposing, even … Andropov believed that the economic stagnation could be remedied by greater worker discipline and by cracking down on corruption. Gorbachev realised military spending had to be reduced and this meant ending the arms race with the USA. Ligachev subsequently became one of Gorbachev’s opponents, making it difficult for Gorbachev to use the party apparatus to implement his views on perestroika. Mikhail Gorbachev was a Soviet politician. In 1990 Gorbachev received the Nobel Prize for Peace for his striking achievements in international relations. (From left to right) Nancy and Ronald Reagan and Mikhail and Raisa Gorbachev on the Reagans' ranch near Santa Barbara, Calif., 1992. Mikhail Gorbachev and the End of Soviet Power London: Macmillan, 1993. The coup was carried out by hard-line Communist Party, KGB, and military officials attempting to avert a new liberalized union treaty and return to the old-line party values. 1984 The City Where We Live: the Soviet State and Trade Unions. Under his new policy of glasnost (“openness”), a major cultural thaw took place: freedoms of expression and of information were significantly expanded; the press and broadcasting were allowed unprecedented candour in their reportage and criticism; and the country’s legacy of Stalinist totalitarian rule was eventually completely repudiated by the government.
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